a. dispersion. The informal structure may enhance productivity or may be counterproductive to the organization. c. Expressive secondary group While we cannot directly attribute these federal employment patterns to failed nondiscrimination policies, these studies show more work to increase nondiscrimination, diversity, and equity is necessary. discourage feelings of group superiority __________ leadership is most appropriate when the groups purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal. The purpose of the HRBA is to empower individuals to be more productive and active members of their societies, which can translate into the workplace. d. Individual, Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. a. a more rigid hierarchical structure b. a greater emphasis on sharing information c. helping employees focus on work d. a reduction in the amount of informal activity 39. The case for corporate engagement, Paper presented at The Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum, Practicing rights: Human rights-based approaches to social work practice. a. c. social group It is against this background that countless campaigns to humanize the bureaucracy have been launched. Several employees at a fast food restaurant call in sick at the last minute. They become timid and cold, unable to use their judgment to help people. Social psychologist __________ examined group decision making among political experts and found that major blunders in U.S. history may be attributed to pressure toward group conformity. a. The supervisor of the office has been informed that Sarah consistently extends her lunch hour by 30 . (MRP =0=0=0 for these bonds. a. Extending this logic, rules can be used in organizations that target employees in positive or negative ways. c. totalitarian Joaquin is continuously trying to improve group harmony and reduce the conflict in the group. d. dyad 2020, 1). c. category d. social group, Almost __________ of Stanley Milgram's research subjects went all the way to what could have been a deadly jolt of electricity if the shock generator had been real. The specific content, nature, and implementation of human rights depends on the cultural context, but there is consensus that the protection from enslavement, prohibition of genocide and torture, rights to free speech, assembly, and political participation, fair trial and to be equal before the law, or to education are part of a basic human rights catalog. Call 896 6000. d. consciousness of kind, A(n) __________ is a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility. Green tape, by virtue of being written and having understood purposes help to empower people and all of these helps increase transparency and accountability. accommodation b. reference group b. the concentration of power in the hands of organizational leaders. __________ is the term for compliance in which people follow direct orders from someone in a position of authority. But his application could not be processed because of a discrepancy between his name in the hospital records and his name as it appears in the members data record. Keiser, L. R., V. M. Wilkins, K. J. Meier, and C. A. Holland. a. a. a. laissez-faire 6 Within a bureaucracy, leaders have access to information that others in the organ. secondary and primary groups are always mutually exclusive The focus on technical proficiency and specialization from a structural standpoint has human rights implications, as well. Decisions are made on behalf of the people by leaders who engage in a process of bargaining, accommodation, and compromise, A _____ is a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad, A homeless man appears at the door of a shelter 10 minutes after the deadline for intake. This is one of the primary reasons for the emergence of __________. c. transition b. there was a movement to humanize bureaucracy (to establish an . c. Obedience He chooses to take a passive approach to this problem, hoping that it will fix itself. totalitarian a. b. Social McGregor believed that employee motivation came from the degree of autonomy and responsibility one has over their work (Bobic and Davis 2003). During her last semester, she has been using graduate sociology student papers as standards in evaluating her own writing skills. a. trained incapacity b. bureaucracy c. oligarchy d. goal displacement, A(n) __________ is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a . For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________. Red tape research considers ineffective rules, which are those that have a compliance burden but do not serve their purposes (Bozeman 2000). I agree to the Terms of Use and acknowledge that I have read the Privacy Policy. d. Herbert Spencer, The leader of a work group has proposed a solution to a problem that some group members believe will have negative results. d. a greater emphasis on sharing information . Though writing around the same time as Weber, Mary Parker Follett took employee psychology into account and advocated for organizations to enjoy power with rather than power over its employees (Shafrtiz and Hyde 2012, 12). Overall, the presence (or, at least, perception) of red tape in organizations has negative consequences for employees and how they experience their work environment (George et al. Leaders using the __________ style of leadership may be praised for their expressive, supportive behavior toward group members, but they may also be blamed for being indecisive in times of crisis. d. impersonality, A school district is run by a board of elected officials, which hires a superintendent, who in turn selects principals for its schools and other administrative staff. social group Regardless, many traditions in public administration and management scholarship use Webers approach to bureaucracy as a foundation for how to analyze and understand public organizations. The first thing you can do to try to de-bureaucratize yourself is to recognize that inside of a bureaucratic organization, there's a set of behaviors that we all learn and develop because they get. What can we do with a rights-based approach to development? 1968), can thus reduce employees decision-making power. impersonality b. Notably, while bureaucracys characteristics can create an impersonality or disinterestedness that is beneficial for democracy (Du Gay 2000 in Adler 2012), this impersonality can also lead to an iron cage, in which people are destined to live but over which [they], as ordinary citizens, have little control (Maley 2004, 69). Rules lead to formalization, which refers to the degree of written rules in organizations (Pugh et al. In addition, there should be compliance with the core conventions of the International Labor Organization and national laws regarding human rights. A. socialization is essential for normal human development. All rights reserved. Modern human rights emerged in the second part of the 20th century in response to the horrors of the Second World War and the Holocaust, but find their roots in the moral concept of natural rights and philosophical debates of the European Enlightenment. This law codified merit principles that guide the federal human resources management system. Joaquin is a member of a group working on a project for his biology class. Browse over 1 million classes created by top students, professors, publishers, and experts. Easy Quiz 2. 23 UDHR), leisure (Art. We first situate these characteristics in the modern context, before considering them through the lens of the HRBA. d. symbolic interactionists, The least amount of interaction between members occurs in a(n) __________. Which of these is not one of them?. d. grassroots, A(n) __________ organization is a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner. coalition aggregate b. c. aggregate b. b. which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time. d. outgroup, Susan and Mary are middle-aged women who have been neighbors for twenty-five years. Together, these streams of research show that the bureaucratic principles related to rules are inconsistent with various elements of the HRBA, specifically, and equity broadly. From Rishi's perspective, the reading group is an example of a(n) __________. Which type of theorist is most concerned with the influence of group size on the interaction among members? Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Students walking to class, shoppers in a department store, and people lined up to buy tickets are examples of a. categories b. aggregates c. social groups d. primary groups, Katy is a member of the literature club in her college, but she neither accepts nor follows the values and norms of the club. b. All human rights are interrelated as the realization of one right often depends, wholly or in part, upon the realization of others. ___________ refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense (such as cutting school or running away from home) by young people. Every decision entails taking risks of some sort, and ordinary employees may not always be prepared to go the extra mile to assist a stranger. Though equity was established as important E post-Minnowbrook in 1968, and in 2005, was declared the fourth pillar of public administration by NAPA, it has yet to obtain equal status as the other three values (Norman-Major 2011). Don't miss out on the latest news and information. Then he e-mailed me to say that he had been sick, and to ask if there was any hope of getting reimbursement from PhilHealth. Ethical climate and rule bending: How organizational norms contribute to unintended rule consequences. d. bureaucratic, A teacher gives students ideas for an assignment, but encourages them to be creative and pick their own subject and format. Today, human rights are codified in international and national laws. a. a. Part of the movement to humanize bureaucracy includes efforts to reduce the number T/F Wanda is a student who works as a part-time waitress at a local restaurant. formal Upon his discharge, Elvie filed for PhilHealth benefits on his behalf as a members spouse. d. anticipatory socialization, The bureaucratic tendency toward rule by the few is termed __________. A HRBA brings structural issues such as inequality, discrimination, and exclusion into focus. 2019, 238). b. c. formal group d. authoritarian, __________ leadership is most appropriate when the group's purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal. Racialized burdens: Applying racialized organization theory to the administrative state. This critique is not new. b. Which of these sociologists applied ideal type analysis and borrowed from the field of economics to study bureaucracies? These rights are inalienable and universal, which means that people are entitled to them by virtue of being human, regardless of race, sex, gender, language, religion, national or ethnic origin, property, political opinion, disability, or any other status (Art. Students walking to class, shoppers in a department store, and people lined up to buy tickets are, 2. Cognitive Psychology Overview of Theory. d. Groupthink, Social psychologist __________ examined group decision making among political experts and found that major blunders in U.S. history may be attributed to pressure toward group conformity. This movement is viewed as a response to the scientific management movement, in which Frederick Taylor conducted time-and-motion studies to find the one best way of doing work and, thus, one best way to manage (Shafritz and Hyde 2012). As the name makes clear, human rights designates individuals as rights holders. b. efforts to reduce the amount of informal activity in the workplace. From a human rights perspective, this violates the principles of participation and access, namely the ability of employees to engage in decisions that affect them and to have full access to resources and information. However, specialization implies the reduction of an employees knowledge of the overall process and centers power and control in the hands of managers (Weiss 1983, 246). Part of the movement to humanize bureaucracy includes________________________. A group composed of three members is termed a(n) __________. From the organization perspective, inefficiencies may result, which is not a goal of bureaucracy. info@gurukoolhub.com +1-408-834-0167; . b. Rules, whether they are considered red tape or not, also lead to rule behaviors. outgroup 2020). c. a more rigid hierarchical structure Rather, public organizations structured by rules are likely to have red tape. Students walking to class, shoppers in a department store, and people lined up to buy tickets are examples of __________. Alternatively, women and people of color rely upon the rules to solidify their status and power; they use the rules from the start. Rishi is a member of a reading group. b. the formal structure of a bureaucracy b. subjects chose to conform to the incorrect responses of Asch's assistants over onehalf (50 percent) of the time d. aggregate, Which of these sociologists applied ideal type analysis and borrowed from the field of economics to study bureaucracies? (Hint: First determine which are the independent and dependent variables.). d. social group, __________ is the term for compliance in which people follow direct orders from someone in a position of authority. this research raises some questions concerning research ethics, In Stanley Milgram's experiments, none of the "teachers" challenged the process before they had applied __________ volts. category Notably, and consistent with this view, Webers opening sentence to the essay about bureaucracy (1946, 146)Modern officialdom functions in the following specific mannerindicates description rather than prescription. d. secondary group, Political parties, ecological activist groups, religious organizations, parent-teacher associations, and college sororities and fraternities are examples of __________ organizations. Search for other works by this author on: PerspectiveThe sociological ambivalence of bureaucracy: From Weber via Gouldner to Marx, Two types of bureaucracy: Enabling and coercive, Human rights: It is your business. Next, we apply a human rights framework to bureaucracy in the public sector. c. outgroup construction c. two-thirds The manager tries to fill in but doesn't know how to run the drive-through intercom or broiler. Relative It permits them to challenge human rights violations in court and in public and it changes the nature of their demands. a. Whenever the group meets, there is conflict among several group members, and this is upsetting to the others. American Civil Liberties Union Public administration scholars have long looked to Webers bureaucratic ideal type (1946) as a way to explain or analyze public bureaucracies. efficiency b. The text uses the expression "bureaucracy's other face" to refer to _________. d. takes place only in the presence of charismatic leadership, b. Borst, R. T., P. M. Kruyen, C. J. Lako, and M. S. de Vries. To meet the instrumental and expressive needs of group members, A major difference between aggregates and social groups is that people in aggregates, share a common purpose but generally do not interact with one another. For example, Woodard (2005) argues that merit has become more related to compensation than to values driving the public sector workforce. a. the CEO or other person who comes to be associated with a bureaucratic organization, a. Achieving equity in public organizations entails not only acknowledging existing inequalities and issues, but also active engagement toward a more equitable bureaucratic structure and addressing underlying structural conditions, such as education, living standards, and employment access. He paid the entire hospital bill from his pocket so he could go home. Here, we address how current applications of bureaucratic elementsmerit and neutrality, as well as bureaucratic rulesmay not respect human rights. 2021). a. c. Group conformity the iron law of oligarchy Dyads are different from triads because b. d. affiliation, Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term __________ to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
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part of the movement to humanize bureaucracy includes 2023